invited Speakers

pierre lavoie, Director General S&T for Force Employers, DND

col (ret'd) andre dupuis and mrs. maria rey, Space strategies consulting limited 

dr. jim chan, DRDC CORA

professor james llinas, SUNY Buffalo

capt. chris bryan and capt. adrian matheson, canadian armed forces, DGAEPM / 415 Squadron, CFB Greenwood

andre dupuis and maria rey

Canadian All-Source Maritime Domain Awareness System

Col (Ret) Andre Dupuis has over 35 years of experience in the Canadian Armed Forces in Air Defence and Space operations, mission execution and strategic planning.  Throughout his career he has been selected to lead a number of highly-visible command and transformational initiatives.  His first space operations tour was in 1986 when he was posted to the 7th Missile Warning Squadron, Beale Air Force Base California, holding the position of Chief of Tactical Operations.  He led the Canadian Space Cadre during his last 8 years in the service and had a key role in the recognition of the importance of space operations to the Canadian Forces.  His last Job in the Department of National Defence was as the Director of Space Requirements, where he was responsible for all aspects of the delivery of space capabilities to the Forces.  Upon his retirement he founded Space Strategies Consulting Limited.
Discerning vessel activity and safety at sea is of critical importance to: global markets; commercial enterprises and; regulatory, law enforcement, intelligence and security agencies. Accurate and trusted Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) is therefore critical.

While AIS and Space-based AIS (S-AIS) have been extremely beneficial to providing improved MDA capabilities on a global scale, the majority of small vessels, including those in the 10m-20m lengths, do not carry AIS equipment. Also, AIS non-compliance and deliberate manipulation is a fast-growing, global trend undermining decision makers who rely on increasingly inaccurate and manipulated data. Therefore, commercial and government agencies must develop and evaluate technologies and approaches that: improve and assure AIS data integrity; as well as investigate the validation of AIS-derived information with data provided by other sources.

Commercially available space-based Earth Observation (EO) data shows great promise in mitigating AIS vulnerabilities and in improving MDA. One of the big advantages of space-based EO sensors is their ability to produce imagery over large swath widths that can provide not only vessel detection, classification and identification capabilities, but they can also provide relational information and context that can complement and validate AIS-derived information and can help determine the activities that vessels are engaged in.

Space and space-based sensing is undergoing a global revolution in technological capability. The large number of existing, planned and proposed commercial Earth Observation (EO) satellites along with the increasing demand for, and commoditization of space-derived EO data and services will have a huge impact on all geospatial analysis including MDA. In particular, the high-revisit rate associated with a significant number of planned commercial EO satellites and constellations will allow for near-continuous surveillance of most points on the Earth’s surface. In other words, persistent surveillance is now within reach. This is unprecedented.

In light of the explosion in commercial space, existing and planned commercial space capabilities must be evaluated in order to determine what can be reliably and cost-effectively acquired commercially, and what these data sources bring to improving MDA. There is also a need for the conception and development of systems and processes that can aggregate, process and analyze multiple data sources and streams, and produce an accurate and trusted Common Operating Picture (COP).

This presentation will discuss a feasibility study being conducted on behalf of the Canadian Space Agency and DRDC Ottawa on the development of a concept of operations and high level system architecture for a Canadian All-source Maritime Domain Awareness System (CAMDAS). The attributes of CAMDAS must enable the ingest and fusion of existing and near-term commercial EO data sources with S-AIS and other information sources (such as social media) while leveraging and remaining adaptable to state-of-the art technologies in space remote sensing, cloud computing, Big Data processing and analytics, and the Internet of Things in order to ingest, and exploit new data sources and state-of-the art technologies in a timely fashion to produce trusted products and meet operational requirements.

james llinas

Designing and Developing a Data Fusion Capability into an IoT Framework

Data Fusion process design is a complex process involving multidisciplinary considerations regarding data source/sensor factors, common referencing (normalization) of data, association of disparate data, and multiple types of uncertainty to yield reliable estimates of particular world/situation conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on the systems engineering approach to designing a Data Fusion process into the Internet of Things (IoT) environment. It discusses using defined architectural primitives for both Data Fusion and the IoT as one basis for such design, and also addresses Middleware and Information Quality issues that will impact the realization of good designs for any Data Fusion process within an IOT environment

All Domain Situational Awareness and Information Fusion Technology: Achieving Agility

Realizing ISR capabilities across multiple operational domains will require consideration of cost-effectiveness issues in how supporting Information Fusion technologies will be designed and developed. The most costly solutions will involve building stove-piped domain-specific capabilities. This presentation offers a range of ideas and issues associated with developing multi-domain robustness and more cost-effective approaches to realizing agile Information Fusion capabilities.

jim chan

ADSA Underwater Surveillance - Underwater Environment in Northern Canada

The Canadian Arctic Archipelago is a group of islands (over 30,000 big and small) between Canada mainland and the Arctic Ocean. The region is over 1.4 million square kilometers, about 1/7 of Canada in size. The Archipelago has 94 major islands; the largest one, Baffin Island, is twice the size of the United Kingdom. Since the Archipelago situates north of 60° latitude, the average annual temperature lies between −6°C and −20°C, depending on the latitude and the other factors. As a result, most waterways are covered by sea ice most of the time.

There are changes in the region in recent decades. The Archipelago has been affected by a warmer climate, resulting in decreased sea ice. This decrease has in turn allowed for more surface vessels to navigate the Northwest Passage in late summer. Many of these ships are not Canadian because many countries, including the United States, consider the Archipelago waterways as international waters. Clearly, Canada does not agree and claims all waterways in the Archipelago as internal waters.

With the trend of increasing traffic in the north comes the expectation that underwater activities will also increase. However, it is difficult to understand the extent of underwater activities because the region is vast and remote. The Archipelago also presents a number of challenges for underwater surveillance. First, the vast area has tens of thousands of channels; this is not a small task for underwater surveillance even only major channels are considered. Second, the water depth varies from less than 50m to about 600m, resulting in a complex environment for acoustic propagation. Third, the uneven underside of the sea ice creates unpredictable acoustic reverberation effects. Finally, long-term power supply for the devices is a problem in this part of the country.

By considering some aspects of submarine navigation, the bathymetry in the Archipelago is analyzed to reveal some choke points where underwater surveillance could be focused on. Seasonal characteristics of sea ice in the region are also examined, raising some interesting questions beyond the technical issues of underwater surveillance.

chris bryan and adrian matheson

CP-140 Data Fusion – Challenges and Opportunities

Over the last decade, the CP-140 Aurora Long Range Patrol aircraft has been the subject of an incremental modernization project (AIMP). As part of this project, the aircraft’s sensors and data management system have been upgraded and integrated to form a world-class mission system.

While this new capability has permitted the Aurora to excel in both maritime and overland surveillance missions, the large increase in data produced by the sensors presents an opportunity to integrate recent developments in data fusion algorithms in order to assist the airborne operators in their track management and track classification duties.

Over the last two years scientists and engineers within National Defence, along with partners in industry have been working on a project to take advantage of this opportunity. The integrated product team (IPT) composed of experts in the data fusion, human factors, recognition and identification, and software domains have made great strides in taking concepts out of the lab and on to the aircraft. There is still work required to get it flying, but there is a clear way ahead.

This is an introductory presentation on the CP-140’s role, the issues that this project aims to address and the IPT framework that was put in place to increase the likelihood of successful implementation.

While the specific approach was tailored to the organizational and operational realities of this particular fleet, our challenges and opportunities are common to anyone attempting to inject a novel technology into an established military capability. As such, the lessons learned and observations presented will be generalizable to anyone working in this domain.